Almost three decades after the conclusion of the CSCE Charter of Paris for a New Europe (1990), an old, divided Europe seems to be back. The current vicious circles of mistrust and escalation dynamics, as well as the erosion of the previous normative and
political consensus have marked a watershed for the post-Cold War order in Europe. Yet despite the antagonistic rhetoric and opposing conﬂict narratives, the current situation is not marked by a clear-cut and irreconcilable ideological schism, as was the case during the previous East-West divide. The density of interdependency and interconnectedness – not
only on the inter-state, but also more importantly on the societal level – is much higher in the current crisis than even in the ‘warmest’ times of the Cold War period. This provides reasons for both hope and concern.